More than half of the world's population relies primarily on rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food source. Majorly rice crop was affected by biotic factors such as weeds, insects, diseases, and nematodes which contribute to lower productivity. Among these biotic factors, rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola infestation causes up to 72% yield loss in rice crop production. The rice root-knot nematode adapted well to flooding conditions and causing risk to all rice ecosystem. Recently, it is found in Italy and added to the EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization) Alert List.
rice, Root-Knot, Nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, Symptoms, Management, Yield losses
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