Neem is a traditional tree that grows well in all tropical areas. It is a deciduous tree with wide spreading branches. Spreading branches of the trees form crowns which spreads 20 m across. The leaves fall only during summer and in other seasons the tree remains evergreen. The roots of the tree penetrate deeply into the soil and remain live for more than twenty five years. Loranthus is the only parasitic weed that grows on the branches of the trees. It mainly spreads through birds. The colorful flower of the parasite attracts birds which eats the berries of the loranthus and spreads it through its fecal matter. It produces haustoria which penetrate deeply into the tree branches which sucks nutrients and moisture from the host tree. As days passes it will lead to death of the tree. Cutting the infected branch and applying copper-oxychloride to prevent secondary fungal infection is one of the best ways to control the spread of the parasitic weed.
Rice is the most well-known cereal, a starchy grain that is utilised as a staple food by more than half of the world's population, owing to its wider adaptability and availability. Nowadays lifestyle-related disorders leading to oxidative stress and diseases such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease have become more common in humans. On the other hand, pigmented rice types such as black rice exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics, making rice a possible choice for neutraceutical and functional food alternatives. The presence of various bioactive compounds in black rice have been linked to the medicinal effects and therapeutic properties extending its role in treatment of ailments and disorders.
The UT of Jammu and Kashmir has distinct agro climatic zones comprising subtropical, intermediate, temperate and cold arid zones. The Kashmir Valley falls under temperate zone and the forests consists of both conifers as well as broad leaved tree species. Besides tree species, several types of mushrooms are found in Kashmir Valley. Kashmir possesses a prime place in the variety and galaxy of macro fungi due to wide agro-climatic variations, diverse physiographic and undulating topography. However, the documentation of mushroom flora is still in pioneer stage and a large number of fungi are yet to be un-recorded from the area. Mushroom season in Kashmir can be witnessed best from the spring up to the early snowfall. Kashmir is the best place for mushroom cultivation and processing. Most of the people in Kashmir belong to rural background and have little resources to meet their essential needs. Mushroom cultivation on commercial scale can help the landless, small and marginal farmers of these hilly areas to increase their income, which can help them to diversify their economic activity. It can provide and raise sufficient employment opportunities for the unemployed youth, and weaker sections of the society.
The final year B.Sc., (Hons.) Agriculture students (2018-19 Batch) of College of Agricultural Technology, Theni have undergone Village Stay Programme (VSP) as a part of the course Rural Agricultural Work Experience (RAWE) at Nilakkottai in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, India for about 90 days. They have been allotted 12 Revenue villages to gather experience with the famers. In that, they got an inspirational experience by a progressive farmer Mr. A.Kennadi of Silukkuvarpatti Village of Nilakkotttai Block. The success story of abovementioned farmer is briefed in this topic.