• Cold Wave and Fog - Criteria, Causes, Impact and Warning

  • Anjusha Sanjay Gawai, Mangshatabam Annie, Raj Kumar Pal,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 28-Feb-2023 | Pages : 0536-0539

    Northwest India has been hit by a deadly cold wave. Red and yellow alerts have been issued by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) in a number of locations, including Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Rajasthan, and Uttarakhand. Severity and average number of cold waves are increasing day by day due to climate change. Disastrous Weather Event of 2018 issued by India Meteorological Department IMD reported loss of about 280 human lives due to cold wave out of that 135 were from Uttar Pradesh and 121 from Bihar. Additionally, it also caused death or injured to the livestock. During the Rabi cropping season, cold waves cause sudden freeze and frost, which has an impact on crops, horticulture plantations/orchards, and other agricultural support services. Hence Central as well as State Government needs to take necessary action regarding early warnings, alert and in making policies in favor of farmers in case of crop failure due to cold wave.

  • Carbon Sequestrations with Cocoa Production

  • Prabakaran C,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Jan-2023 | Pages : 0540-0542

     Tree crops like cocoa offer significant environmental and economic benefits. Small farmers can grow cocoa under tree share to create continuous income from coca fruit harvesting. This also prevents the burning of forest areas and the destruction of biodiversity habitats. Protection of these standing forests with cocoa offers an immediate solution to sequester carbon. In degraded areas, tree crops are planted to improve soil filtration and erosion reduction and offset carbon. The incorporation of compost and the adoption of organic techniques for enhancing soil fertility and control of pesticides also allow for increased carbon storage. Sequestration can become an additional income for the farmers. 

  • Antibiotics use in Livestock and its Linkages to Poisoned Food Cycle: Current Status and Way Forward

  • Katyayini Sharma,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Jan-2023 | Pages : 0543-0553

     The phrase "antibiotics" refers to a broad category of chemical compounds produced naturally, semi-synthetically, and artificially, and used to prevent (bacteriostatic) or eradicate bacterial development (bactericidal). They are divided into two categories: narrow- and broad-spectrum antibiotics, depending on whether they have bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties. Additionally, the tetracyclines, aminoglycosides β-lactams, lincosamides, macrolides, pleuromutilins, and sulphonamides are among the classes of antibiotics that are more commonly used in agriculture globally and that are the subject of growing scientific concern with regard to their possible side effects and risk management strategies. As the years advance, the use of antibiotics is increasing at a rapid pace. The antibiotics are not only used for humans but for food animals too to promote growth and prevent infection. This improper use of antibiotics has an influence on the selection of microorganisms that are resistant to them. These bacteria, which are antibiotic-resistant, are spread from food animals to humans, milk, meat, soil, and water. The author reviews the extent of antibiotic worldwide and the mechanism by which the microorganisms develop resistant against the antibiotics. The spread of antibacterial resistant bacteria and mechanism of gene transfer from one bacteria to other has also been discussed. Preventive measures that can be taken to reduce the antibiotic use in food animals and reduce the antibiotic resistance in the mere future have also been highlighted.